(Extraído de PubMed.gov)
Perspect Biol Med. 2011 Autumn;54(4):438-54.
Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The placebo response represents an enigmatic element of therapeutics. The potency of placebo effects is highlighted by the fact that the current gold standard for determining therapeutic efficacy, the randomized controlled clinical trial, is based on identifying treatment responses that are statistically superior to those elicited by a placebo. Although much has been written concerning the phenomenology of placebos, little is known concerning how they are elicited, although recent research has demonstrated that placebo effects are mediated via objective physiological pathways. I have previously argued that the placebo response is a developmental achievement, rooted in implicit procedural memories that are linked to background affects of well-being evoked by a relational dynamic with a caregiver. This article develops this idea further, suggesting that placebo response represents a nervous-system response aimed at countering the dysphoric effects attributable to chronic stress, and that it is dependent on developmental attachment dynamics. A range of behaviors by caregivers that mimic those achieved during secure attachment are suggested to promote placebo responses.