(Extraído de PubMed.gov)
Nutr Neurosci. 2011 Sep;14(5):226-36.
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA.
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Detailed investigations into the specific dietary components of these foods have revealed that many polyphenolic constituents exert anti-oxidant effects on key substrates involved in the pathogenesis and progression of ischemic injury. These data have perpetuated the belief that the protective effects of flavonoids result from direct anti-oxidant actions at the levels of the cerebral vasculature and brain parenchyma. While many in vitro studies using purified extracts support this contention, first-pass metabolism alters the bioavailability of flavonoids such that the achievable concentrations after oral consumption are not consistent with this mechanism. Importantly, oral consumption of flavonoids may promote neural protection by facilitating the expression of gene products responsible for detoxifying the ischemic microenvironment through both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions. In particular, the transcriptional factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 has emerged as a critical regulator of flavonoid-mediated protection through the induction of various cytoprotective genes. The pleiotropic effects associated with potent transcriptional regulation likely represent the primary mechanisms of neural protection, as the flavonoid concentrations reaching ischemic tissues in vivo are sufficient to alter intracellular signal transduction but likely preclude the one-to-one stoichiometry necessary to confer protection by direct anti-oxidation. These data reflect an exciting new direction in the study of complementary and alternative medicine that may lead to the development of novel therapies for ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and other neurological disorders.